Коррупция в цифрах, или Как государству залатать дыры в бюджете

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Очевидно, что доить народ проще, чем принимать действенные меры по борьбе с коррупцией. Старики и дети, а также замученные бытовыми проблемами и кризисом работоспособные граждане готовы стойко принять любое потрясение и поделиться последними копейками с беднеющим государством.

Но если недоплаченные пенсии и переплаченные налоги будут приносить в бюджет дополнительные миллиарды рублей, то по вине коррумпированных чиновников выливаться из бюджета будут миллиарды долларов. Так не лучше ли посильнее затянуть «краник» и снизить уровень коррупции хотя бы втрое, чтобы приблизиться по данному показателю к другим развитым государствам? Сейчас уровень коррупции и взяточничества в России составляет 30 — 35% ВВП (в начале нулевых он был около 49%), но в успешно развивающихся странах он находится на уровне 3 — 10%.

Цифра месяца: по результатам проверки Счетная палата заявила, что незаконный вывод капиталов из страны в 2013—2015 годах составил 1,2 трлн рублей, а взыскать в федеральный бюджет по постановлениям Росфиннадзора получилось только около 3 млн рублей. Эффективность возврата составляет 0,0005%. Это ничтожно мало. По сути, ведомство, которое отвечает за наведение порядка в чиновничьей среде, расписалось в собственном бессилии.

Положение дел прокомментировал аудитор Счетной палаты Сергей Штогрин, который непосредственно проводил данную проверку. Он рассказал о том, как государство может пресечь мошеннические схемы и получить реальные возвраты в бюджет.

Сейчас более 99% от суммы штрафных санкций Росфиннадзора за незаконный вывод капиталов остаются невзысканными. Сейчас срок давности для взысканий составляет всего один год. Неудивительно, что вместо 663,4 млрд рублей, выписанных Росфиннадзором в качестве штрафов, удалось получить всего 3 млн рублей. Зачастую выявленные нарушения не облагались штрафом только из-за истечения срока давности. Кроме того, таможенная служба проверяет только около 6% сделок, так что многочисленные нарушения валютного законодательства остаются вне поля деятельности надзорных органов. Банковский сектор также не уполномочен пресекать незаконные сделки. Сергей Штогрин рассказал о вопиющих случаях вывода за рубеж, например, 2,8 млн долларов через организацию с уставным капиталом в 10 тысяч рублей. Банкиры не только не воспрепятствовали этим действиям, но быстро и успешно провели операцию.

Действующее законодательство не обеспечивает осуществления полноценного валютного контроля и пресечения противоправного вывода капиталов из РФ. Ответственность за преступления не соответствует тяжести совершенного правонарушения, да и самих нарушителей удается найти крайне редко.

В целом по стране из 30 млн различных штрафов (включая штрафы ГИБДД) взыскать удается лишь 14%. И наверняка их платят порядочные люди, совершившие мелкие административные правонарушения или проехавшие на красный свет светофора. Коррупционеры же остаются целыми и невредимыми и преспокойно проводят валютные махинации, а затем навсегда уезжают из России.

Голос «Содействия»:

Законы и наказание за коррупцию должны быть жестче, надзорные ведомства должны иметь возможность быстро адаптироваться к новым схемам махинаций и оперативно реагировать на сигналы о правонарушениях. Необходимо навести порядок и в банковской сфере, чтобы коммерческие банки не имели возможности беспрепятственно переводить миллиарды рублей от заведомо липовых фирм за рубеж. Если прикрыть хотя бы один из каналов утечки разворованного российского бюджета за рубеж, можно будет и пенсионеров оставить в покое, и учителям не предлагать идти в бизнес. Но только нужно ли это тем, кто и без особых антикоррупционных достижений занял 76% мест в парламенте?

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